16.9.10

ဖတ္မိဖတ္ရာ .... စာေပႏိုဗယ္ဆု ႏွင့္ စာေရးဆရာၾကီးမ်ား

ကိုလံဘီယာစာေရးဆရာၾကီး Gabriel García Márquez အေၾကာင္း အင္တာနက္မွာလိုက္ရွာရင္း ႏိုဗယ္ဆု ေရးခ်ယ္ေရးအဖြဲ႔၏ အင္တာနက္လိပ္စာကို ကြ်န္ေတာ္သြားေတြ႔သည္။ http://nobelprize.org/ ျဖစ္သည္။
ကြ်န္ေတာ္အေနျဖင့္ ဖတ္၍မဆံုးႏိုင္ေအာင္ျဖစ္ရသည္။ စာေပႏိုဗယ္ဆုႏွင့္ ျငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး ႏိုဗယ္ဆု ဆိုင္ရာ အခန္းမ်ားကေတာ့ ကြ်န္ေတာ္ကို အစြဲေဆာင္ဆံုးျဖစ္သည္။

စာေပႏိုဗယ္ဆုႏွင့္ဆိုင္ေသာ အခန္းမ်ားကို ဖတ္ရင္း စာေပႏိုဗယ္ဆု ခ်ီးျမွင့္ျခင္းခံရသည့္ စာေရး ဆရာၾကီးမ်ားအေၾကာင္း ေလွ်ာက္ဖတ္မိသည္။ သူတို႔တေတြ ဘာလူမ်ိဳးပါလိမ့္ ၊ ဘယ္အခိ်န္ေတြက ပုဂၢိဳလ္ ေတြပါလိမ့္၊ စာရင္းတို႔မိသည္။ သူတို႔အေၾကာင္္းေတြးရင္း ကြ်န္ေတာ့္ စိတ္ကူးထဲေပၚလာေသာ စာအုပ္မ်ား ရွိသည္။ ႏိုဗယ္ဆုရ စာေရးဆရာၾကီးမ်ား၏ ၀တၳဳတိုတခိ်ဳ႕ကို ဆရာေဇာ္ဂ်ီ ဘာသာျပန္ဆိုခဲ့ေသာ ဝတၳဳတို ၃ တြဲျဖစ္သည္။ မိုးၾကယ္မို႕လားႏွင့္ ဝတၴဳတုိမ်ား ၊ လမ္းသစ္ႏွင့္ ဝတၴဳတိုမ်ား၊ နင္ လားဟဲ့ ခ်စ္ဒုကၡႏွင့္ ဝတၴဳတုိမ်ား။ ဆရာေဇာ္ဂ်ီက ႏိုဗယ္ဆုရ စာေရးဆရာၾကီး ၂၅ ဦး၏ ၀တၳဳတို ၃၃ ပုဒ္ကို ျပန္ဆို ခဲ့ျခင္းျဖစ္သည္။ (ရာျပည့္စာအုပ္တိုက္ ပံုႏွိပ္ျခင္းတြင္ ေနာက္ဆက္တြဲ ၁ ပုဒ္ ထပ္တိုး ) ကြ်န္ေတာ္ အေတာ္ သေဘာက်ေသာ ၀တၳဳတို ၂ ပုဒ္ရွိသည္။ ဂ်ပန္စာေရးဆရာ Yasunari Kawabata ၏ အိဇု အျငိမ့္သမ ကေလး (The Izu Dancer) ႏွင့္ အေမရိကန္စာေရးဆရာမ Pearl Buck ၏ လမ္းသစ္ (မူရင္းနာမည္ကို မမွတ္မိေတာ့) တို႔ျဖစ္သည္။

Facts on the Nobel Prize in Literature အခန္းျဖင့္ စိတ္၀င္စားဖြယ္ရာ မွတ္တမ္းအခ်ိဳ႕ကို ထုတ္ႏႈတ္ ေပးထားသည္။ အနည္းငယ္ ေကာက္ႏႈတ္ စာရင္းတို႔ရလွ်င္ -

- ၁၉၀၁ မွ ၂၀၀၉ အထိ ႏွစ္ေပါင္း ၁၀၉ ႏွစ္ အတြင္း တစ္ႏွစ္လွ်င္ တစ္ၾကိမ္ႏႈန္းျဖင့္  စုစုေပါင္း  ၁၀၂ ၾကိမ္   စာေပႏိုဗယ္ဆု ခ်ီးျမွင့္ခဲ့ျပီးျဖစ္သည္။
- ၁၉၀၄, ၁၉၁၇, ၁၉၆၆, ၁၉၇၄ ခုႏွစ္တို႔တြင္ စာေရးဆရာ ၂ ဦးစီကို ပူးတြဲ ဆုခ်ီးျမွင္ခဲ့သည္။
- ႏွစ္ေပါင္း ၁၀၉ ႏွစ္ အတြင္း  စုစုေပါင္း စာေရးဆရာ ၁၀၆ ဦးကို   စာေပႏိုဗယ္ဆု ခ်ီးျမွင့္ခဲ့ျပီးျဖစ္သည္။
- စာေရးဆရာ စုစုေပါင္း၁၀၆ ဦးတြင္ အမိ်ဳးသား ၉၄ ဦး ႏွင့္ အမိ်ဳးသမီး ၁၂ ဦးတို႔ ျဖစ္ၾကပါသည္။
- ၁၉၁၄, ၁၉၁၈, ၁၉၃၅, ၁၉၄၀, ၁၉၄၁, ၁၉၄၂ ႏွင့္ ၁၉၄၃ ခုႏွစ္ အတြင္း စုစုေပါင္း ၇ ႏွစ္္ ဆုခ်ီးျမွင္ျခင္း   ရပ္နားခဲ့ရသည္။
- ဆုခ်ီးျမွင့္ခံရသည့္အခိ်န္တြင္ အသက္အငယ္ဆံုး စာေရးဆရာမွာ ျဗိတိသွ် အမ်ိဳးသား Rudyard Kipling 
  အသက္ ၄၂ ႏွစ္ ျဖစ္ျပီး ၊ ၁၉၀၇ ခုႏွစ္ အတြက္ျဖစ္သည္။
- ဆုခ်ီးျမွင္ျခင္းခံရသည့္ အခိ်န္တြင္ အသက္အၾကီးဆံုး စာေရးဆရာမွာ အီရန္ အမ်ိဳးသမီး Doris Lessing
  အသက္ ၈၈ ႏွစ္ ျဖစ္ျပီး ၊ ၂၀၀၇ ခုႏွစ္ အတြက္ျဖစ္သည္။ (အဂၤလန္ႏိုင္ငံသား ခံယူထားသည္)
- စာေပႏိုဗယ္ဆုကို ျငင္းပယ္ခဲ့သည့္  စာေရးဆရာ ၂ ဦးရိွသည္။ 
   ရုရွား အမ်ိဳးသား Boris Leonidovich Pasternak ၊ ၁၉၅၈ ခုႏွစ္ အတြက္ျဖစ္သည္။
   ျပင္သစ္ အမ်ိဳးသား Jean Paul Sartre ၊ ၁၉၆၄ ခုႏွစ္ အတြက္ျဖစ္သည္။
       ( အေသးစိတ္ သိလိုလွ်င္ အင္တာနက္တြင္ ေလ့လာႏုိင္ပါသည္။ )

စာေပႏိုဗယ္ဆု အေၾကာင္းေရးသားသည့္ ေဆာင္းပါးမ်ား အမ်ားအျပားရွိပါသည္။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္ ေလာေလာဆယ္ ဖတ္ထားသျဖင့္ မွတ္မိသည့္ ေဆာင္းပါးကို ညႊန္းရမည္ဆိုပါလွ်င္ ဆရာေဖျမင့္၏ စာအုပ္ကမၻာ စာအုပ္မွ စာေပႏိုဘယ္ဆုႏွင့္ ဂယက္မ်ား ကိုညႊန္းလိုပါသည္။ ( စာမ်က္ႏွာ ၂၆၁-၂၇၄ )

-ရရိွသည့္ ဆုေငြပမာဏမွာ ယခင္က အေျပာင္းအလဲ အတက္အက် ရွိခဲ့ေသာ္လည္း ယခု  ေနာက္ပိုင္း  တြင္မူ ဆြီဒင္ ကရိုနာေငြ ၁၀ သန္းဟူ၍ မူေသသတ္မွတ္ခဲ့သည္။ ( စာမ်က္ႏွာ - ၂၆၅ )
(  ၁၈-၉-၁၀ ေငြလဲႏႈန္း ၊      1 Swedish Krona = 0.14173 US Dollar
                                  1 US Dollar (USD) = 7.05547 Swedish Krona (SEK)
 US ေဒၚလာႏွင့္ဆိုလွ်င္ ၁,၄၁၇,၃၀၀.၀၀ )








စာေပႏိုဗယ္ ဆုတံဆိပ္၏
မ်က္ႏွာစာ ႏွစ္ဖက္




စာေပႏိုဗယ္ဆု ဆုခ်ီးျမွင္ျခင္းခံရသည့္ စာေရးဆရာမ်ား ခုႏွစ္အလိုက္ 

1. 1901 , Mr. Sully Prudhomme                 Poet and Essayist      French      1839 - 1907
2. 1902 , Mr. Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen  Historian,
                              jurist, journalist, politician, archaeologist      German    1817-1903
3. 1903 , Mr. Bjørnstjerne Martinus Bjørnson
                                      Poet, novelist, playwright, lyricist     Norwegian    1832 - 1910
4. 1904 , Mr. Frédéric Mistral                                     Poet     French          1830 - 1914
              Mr. José Echegaray y Eizaguirre
                       Dramatist, civil engineer and Mathematician     Spanish       1832 - 1916
5. 1905 , Mr. Henryk Sienkiewicz                          Novelist      Polish          1846 - 1916
6. 1906 , Mr. Giosuè Carducci                                    Poet      Italian         1835 - 1907
7. 1907 , Mr. Rudyard Kipling
                       Short story writer, novelist, poet, journalist       British        1865 - 1936
8. 1908 , Mr. Rudolf Christoph Eucken              Philosopher      German     1846 - 1926
9. 1909 , Ms. Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf                Writer      Swedish     1858 - 1940
10. 1910 , Mr. Paul Johann Ludwig Heyse
                                 Lyric poet, dramatist, novelist, writer      German     1830 - 1914
11. 1911 , Mr.Count Maurice Polidore Marie Bernhard Maeterlinck
                                                 Playwright, poet, essayist       Belgian      1862 -1949
12. 1912 , Mr. Gerhart Johann Robert Hauptmann    Dramatist    German    1862 - 1946
13. 1913 , Mr. Rabindranath Tagore       Poet,  short-story writer,
                       novelist, essayist, playwright, philosopher,painter  Indian    1861 -1941
-- . 1914 , No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
14. 1915 , Mr. Romain Rolland
                               Dramatist, Essayist, Art historian, Novelist    French   1866 - 1944
15. 1916 , Mr. Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam  Poet, novelist  Swedish  1859 - 1940
16. 1917 , Mr. Karl Adolph Gjellerup                   Poet, novelist    Danish    1857 - 1919
                Mr. Henrik Pontoppidan          Novelist, realist writer    Danish    1857 - 1943
-- . 1918 , No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
17. 1919 , Mr. Carl Friedrich Georg Spitteler                     Poet     Swiss     1845 - 1924
18. 1920 , Mr. Knut Pedersen Hamsun
                                     Author, poet, dramatist, social critic    Norwegian   1895-1952
19. 1921 , Mr. Anatole France                                 Novelist     French         1844 - 1924
20. 1922 , Mr. Jacinto Benavente                           Dramatist     Spanish      1866 - 1954
21. 1923 , Mr. William Butler Yeats                Poet, Dramatist       Irish        1865 - 1939
22. 1924 , Mr. Wladyslaw Stanislaw Reymont            Novelist      Polish       1867 - 1925
23. 1925 , Mr. George Bernard Shaw  Playwright,critic,political activist  Irish  1856 - 1950
24. 1926 , Ms. Grazia Deledda                       Writer, novelist      Italian       1871 - 1936
25. 1927 , Mr. Henri Bergson                   Writer, philosopher      French      1859 - 1941
26. 1928 , Ms. Sigrid Undset                                   Novelist    Norwegian    1882-1949
27. 1929 , Mr. Thomas Mann    Novelist,short story writer,essayist   German  1875 - 1955
28. 1930 , Mr. Sinclair Lewis   Novelist,playwright,short story writer  American 1885-1951
29. 1931 , Mr. Erik Axel Karlfeldt                                  Poet     Swedish      1864 - 1931
30. 1932 , Mr. John Galsworthy     Novelist, playwright, writer     British        1867 - 1933
31. 1933 , Mr. Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin    Novelist, short story writer  Russian 1870-1953
32. 1934 , Mr. Luigi Pirandello                        Dramatist , author     Italian    1867 - 1936
    . 1935 , No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
33. 1936 , Mr. Eugene Gladstone O'Neill                Playwright     American    1888 - 1953
34. 1937 , Mr. Roger Martin du Gard              Novelist, author       French     1881 - 1958
35. 1938 , Ms. Pearl Buck              Writer, novelist , missionary    American   1892 - 1973
36. 1939 , Mr. Frans Eemil Sillanpää                               Writer    Finnish     1888 - 1964
   . 1940 , No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
   . 1941 , No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
   . 1942 , No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
   . 1943 , No Nobel Prize was awarded this year.
37. 1944 , Mr. Johannes Vilhelm Jensen                         Writer     Danish    1873 - 1950
38. 1945 , Ms. Gabriela Mistral             Poet, diplomat, feminist     Chilean    1889-1957
39. 1946 , Mr. Hermann Hesse   Novelist, short story, essayist, poet  German  1877-1962
40. 1947 , Mr. André Paul Guillaume Gide        Novelist, essayist     French    1869 - 1951
41. 1948 , Mr. Thomas Stearns Eliot      Poet, dramatist, literary critic  British  1888 - 1965
42. 1949 , Mr. William Faulkner       Novelist , short story writer    American    1897 -1962
43. 1950 , Mr. Earl (Bertrand Arthur William) Russell     Philosopher,
                                                    logician, historian, social critic    British    1872 - 1970
44. 1951 , Mr. Pär Fabian Lagerkvist                                Poet,
                        playwright, novelist, essayist, short story writer     Swedish    1891 - 1974
45. 1952,Mr.François Mauriac   Novelist,dramatist,critic,poet,journalist  French  1885-1970
46.1953,Mr.Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill Historian,writer,artist British 1874-1965
47. 1954 , Mr. Ernest Miller Hemingway           Author, novelist    American    1899 - 1961
48. 1955 , Mr. Halldór Kiljan Laxness               Author, novelist     Icelandic    1902 - 1998
49. 1956 , Mr. Juan Ramón Jiménez                                Poet      Spanish     1881 - 1958
50. 1957 , Mr. Albert Camus
                   Novelist, author, philosopher, journalist      French - Algerian     1913 - 1960
51. 1958 , Mr. Boris Leonidovich Pasternak    Novelist, author, poet   Russian  1890- 1960
52. 1959 , Mr. Salvatore Quasimodo                               Author     Italian    1901 - 1968
53. 1960 , Mr. Saint-John Perse (Alexis Leger)                     Poet    French    1887 - 1975
54. 1961 , Mr. Ivo Andric            Novelist, short story writer   Yugoslavian    1892 - 1975
55. 1962 , Mr. John Steinbeck
                     Novelist, short story writer, war correspondent     American    1902 - 1968
56. 1963 , Mr. Giorgos Seferis                        Poet, Diplomat       Greek      1900 - 1971
57. 1964 , Mr. Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre Existentialist philosopher,
       playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, literary critic   French   1905-1980
58. 1965 , Mr. Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov              Novelist   Russian  1905 - 1984
59. 1966 , Mr. Shmuel Yosef Agnon                    Author, novelist     Israeli   1888 - 1970
                Ms. Nelly Sachs                                 Poet, Playwright   German  1891 - 1970
60. 1967 , Mr. Miguel Angel Asturias
                               Poet, novelist, playwright, journalist      Guatemalan     1899 - 1974
61. 1968 , Mr. Yasunari Kawabata     Novelist, short story writer    Japanese   1899 - 1972
62. 1969 , Mr. Samuel Beckett     Novelist, playwright, poet, essayist    Irish   1906 - 1989
63.1970,Mr.Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn,Novelist,dramatist,historianRussian1918-2008
64. 1971 , Mr. Pablo Neruda            Author, poet, politican         Chilean      1904 - 1973
65. 1972 , Mr. Heinrich Böll                         Writer, novelist       German      1917 - 1985
66. 1973 , Mr. Patrick White         Short story writer, essayist     Australian    1912 - 1990
67. 1974 , Mr. Eyvind Johnson        Writer, short-story writer      Swedish     1900 - 1976
                Mr. Harry Martinson                        Author, poet       Swedish     1904 - 1978
68. 1975 , Mr. Eugenio Montale    Poet, prose writer, editor, translator  Italian 1896-1981
69. 1976 , Mr. Saul Bellow   Novelist, playwright, writer  Canadian/American   1915-2005
70. 1977 , Mr. Vicente Aleixandre                         Poet         Spanish           1898 - 1984
71. 1978 , Mr. Isaac Bashevis Singer    Novelist, short story writer    Polish    1902 - 1991
72. 1979 , Mr. Odysseus Elytis                             Poet            Greek           1911 - 1996
73. 1980 , Mr. Czeslaw Milosz         Poet, prose writer, essayist       Polish     1911 - 2004
74. 1981 , Mr. Elias Canetti             Novelist, writer      Bulgarian/Greman     1905 - 1994
75. 1982 , Mr. Gabriel García Márquez                 Screenwriter,
                                    novelist, short story writer, journalist    Colombian  1927 - .......
76. 1983 , Mr. William Golding         Novelist, poet, playwright    British        1911 - 1993
77. 1984 , Mr. Jaroslav Seifert              Writer, poet, journalist    Czech         1901 - 1986
78. 1985 , Mr. Claude Simon                                    Novelist     French        1913 - 2005
79. 1986 , Mr. Wole Soyinka               Writer, poet, playwright    Nigerian      1934 - ......
80. 1987 , Mr. Joseph Brodsky                           Poet, essayist    Russian      1940 - 1996
81. 1988 , Mr. Naguib Mahfouz                                 Novelist     Egyptian     1911 - 2006
82. 1989 , Mr. Camilo José Cela      Novelist, short story writer    Spanish      1916 - 2002
83. 1990 , Mr. Octavio Paz                    Writer, poet, diplomat    Mexican      1914 - 1998
84. 1991 , Ms. Nadine Gordimer                               Writer,
                                   political activist, playwright, novelist   South African  1923 - .....
85. 1992 , Mr. Derek Walcott   Poet, playwright, writer, visual artist  Caribbean  1930-....
86. 1993 , Ms. Toni Morrison              Novelist, editor     African-American    1931 - .....
87. 1994 , Mr. Kenzaburo Oe   Novelist, short story writer, essayist Japanese  1935 -......
88. 1995 , Mr. Seamus Heaney                                        Poet       Irish       1939 -......
89. 1996 , Ms. Wislawa Szymborska       Poet, essayist, translator     Polish    1923 -......
90. 1997 , Mr. Dario Fo                    Playwright, actor, composer     Italian    1926 -......
91. 1998 , Mr. José Saramago               Playwright, novelist     Portuguese    1922 - 2010
92. 1999 , Mr. Günter Grass                       Playwright, novelist     German    1927 -......
93. 2000 , Mr. Gao Xingjian     Novelist, playwright, critic, painter   Chinese   1940 -.......
94. 2001 , Mr. Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul  Novelist,essayist Trinidadian 1932 -.....
95. 2002 , Mr. Imre Kertész                                   Novelist     Hungarian     1929 -.......
96. 2003 , Mr. John M. Coetzee  Novelist,essayist,literary critic  South African  1940 -.....
97. 2004 , Ms. Elfriede Jelinek   Novelist, playwright, social criticism  Austrian  1946 -.....
98. 2005 , Mr. Harold Pinter    Playwright, screenwriter, actor, poet   British   1930 - 2008
99. 2006 , Mr. Orhan Pamuk                                      Novelist     Turkish     1952 -.......
100. 2007 , Ms. Doris Lessing                          Writer, novelist      Iranian     1919 -.......
101. 2008 , Mr. Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio  Novelist,essayist,translator  French 1940-....
102. 2009 , Ms. Herta Müller               Novelist, essayist, poet      Romanian    1953 - ......
103. 1010 , December 10 .............              ...............                 ..........        ...............

ရည္ညြန္းခ်က္  -  ေအာက္ပါ website မ်ားမွ ေလ့လာထားပါသည္။
                       http://nobelprize.org/
                       http://en.wikipedia.org/
                       google , images
ေစာသက္လင္း
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မၾကာမီ ....... ကြ်န္ေတာ္ျပန္ဖတ္ခ်င္ေနေသာ စာအုပ္မ်ား ၊ ၄  ။ ( ဘုံဘ၀မွာျဖင့္ - သခင္တင္ျမ )
                  ဖတ္မိဖတ္ရာ ... သခင္ေအာင္ဆန္းႏွင့္ ၀ါးလံုးအတြင္း ေနရာယူၾကပါ။
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